This article by DeNeen L. Brown describes how many Blacks lived after the Civil War.
A few years after the Civil War ended, promoters determined to establish an all-black town on the Kansas frontier took out an ad in a Kentucky bulletin promising membership in The Largest Colored Colony in America for a small down payment: All Colored People that want to go to Kansas, on September 5th, 1877, Can do so for $5.00.
The bulletin explained those wanting to join this new colony, which would be called Nicodemus, can do so by paying the sum of one dollar ($1.00), and this money is to be paid by the first of September, 1877, in installments of twenty-five cents at a time, or otherwise as may be desired.
Hundreds of black people from Kentucky took up the call and set off for the new colony in Kansas, traveling with the promise of a new and better life. One of the settlers, Willianna Hickman, joined 300 people leaving Kentucky for Nicodemus in 1878. She and her family traveled for two days on a train before reaching Ellis, Kan. It was a difficult and treacherous journey.